Cultures and Politics… :
If Peru is now identified with the Incas, is that they dominated the Andean America when the Spanish arrived.
We should not however forget the great civilizations which they succeeded:
Paracas (-800 to 200), for example, established on the Pacific coast, and known for his mastery of weaving.
Nazca (-200 To 600), famous for huge designs traced on the floor.
Moche cultures (100-700) and Chimu (900-1470) have left their mark on the north coast of Peru today. The first was a warrior society. The second was splendid remnants of metal and a city of mud, Chan-Chan.
In the highlands, have flourished Tiahuanaco (400-1000), on the shores of Titicaca Lake, and Huari (600-1000), to whom we owe the idea of urban setting and a first Andean empire.
Already, the settlement was in place and the gold and silver sailed to Spain, where they provided the power of Charles V and Philip II. This colonization, it was Christianity and imposed. In the first, the Indians were quickly reintroduced their ancestral beliefs, the great Christian figures “go” again, as contraband, many ancient deities. For imposed purposes, had been established in Lima in 1535 (a perception, therefore), we also established the Viceroyalty of Peru, seven years later to deal with it. It was a continental jurisdiction. That the Indians have had a soul or not, abuse and disease made it a massacre. Slavery of blacks came to supplement the slaves.
But more and settled a colony grows; it aspires to free itself from the tutelage of his mother city. And in the early nineteenth century, Spanish settlers in South America are rising up against Madrid.
Venezuela’s Simon Bolivar (1783-1830) and Argentina’s Jose de San Martin (1778-1850) lead the fight. San Martin manages to Lima and proclaimed independence, July 28, 1821. The war will last three years. In 1824, Spain makes the weapons; however, it does not officially recognize the independence in 1879. Meanwhile, it remains to give shape to the emancipation.
Tensions arise between the allies quickly yesterday.
Currently in Peru, in the words of the 1993 Constitution: The President is the representative of the Nation, the head of state, government and armed forces. Legislative power is vested in a Congress of 120 members. A Supreme Court controls the judiciary. The President of the Republic and members of Congress are elected by direct universal suffrage for a period of five years.
Between the years 600 and 1200 AD, Bolivia had a highly developed culture – Tiahuanaco culture, which disappeared with the expansion of the Inca Empire. Many traces of this period are still visible, such as Quechua and Aymara languages . After the destruction of the Inca Empire, the Spanish conquered the plateau in 1538 and drew on the riches of the subsoil for the motherland. In the early nineteenth century, the opposition against the colonial power began to form, and independence was proclaimed in 1825.
Upper Peru, loyal to Bolivar, separates the Lower Peru (pretty much present-day Peru) to be Bolivia. Over the following decades, border issues will cause many wars between the Peruvians and their neighbors (Pacific War against Chile from 1879 to 1884 war against Ecuador, in 1941). Political mores are rough and the country sees coups and dictatorships over as the carriages of a train. In the twentieth century, the civil and military people alternate in precarious institutional conditions.
Bolivia is named after the leader of the revolution Simón Bolívar, who also wrote the first constitution. The following decades were marked by a succession of military dictatorships and by the Chaco War (1932-1935), after which Bolivia lost the Gran Chaco region. Hugo Banzer Suárez, who had ruled the country as a dictator from 1971 to 1978, was the victor of the presidential elections of August 1997, but in August 2001, seriously ill, he was forced to give way to Vice-President Gonzalo Sánchez. In recent years the country has faced a series of political and social movements that have affected the stability of government.
Yet for twenty years, despite the ‘fragility ethics “of some leaders, the political situation stabilizes.
Today, Bolivia is a parliamentary republic. The president, elected every 5 years, is both head of state and head of government. He appoints the ministers. The parliament consists of two chambers: the Senate, with 27 seats and the Chamber of Deputies, composed of 130 seats.
Some important dates:
1538: Conquest of Bolivia by the Spanish, who then becomes a part of Peru.
1824: Simon Bolivar, a peace activist of Venezuelan origin, releases the country from the grip Spanish and gives the country its name.
1825: Independence is won, and Simon Bolivar became the first president of Bolivia.
Bolivia has a National System of Protected Areas (21) representing approximately 15% of the country. It also has the largest area of global forest reserves sustainably exploitable (provided that uncontrolled deforestation is halted).
The country has ratified the main conventions of the Kyoto Protocol and is developing its legal framework accordingly. The effects of climate change are sensitive to varying degrees: desertification, floods and landslides, melting of tropical glaciers, deteriorating health situation of population (development of infectious diseases); deterioration of living conditions of poor farmers.