Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui Noguera or Tupac Amaru II (1742-1781)
Claiming the memory of Tupac Amaru I, Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui Noguerason resumed the fight of the last Inca emperor, and began the natives revolt against the oppression of Hispanics.
This prestigious family name, endorsed twice in two centuries apart, has acquired a mythical dimension as to be known beyond the Andes only: Tupac Amaru, the “royal serpent” in Quechua, is the major symbol resistance to oppression-Hispanic, and whatever its origin, left-to-account Peruvian and South American in general, the masses of all the Native American region in particular. His celebrity is matched only by its power of seduction.
Born in 1738 in Surimana between the valley of Cuzco and the altiplano high-Peru (now Bolivia), José Gabriel Condorcanqui Noguera was born into a wealthy family in the Viceroyalty of colonial Peru. Very young, this mestizo lost his father.
Sent to school at St. Francis Borgia of Cuzco, managed by the Jesuits who then radiate in Latin America, he received the best education possible: that provided to native sons of dignitaries. Then he took classes at San Marcos University in Lima, the oldest of the continent.
Prepared for high office that allows him his rank, he participated fully in the general movement affecting the Andes during the Enlightenment: “renaissance Inca” allows descendants of the empire conquered in 1532 by the conquistador Francisco Pizarro in the head and face, by imitation, number of abandoned colonial society identify with this glorious past. Jose Gabriel is sensitive to current ideas, especially when it observes the harsh reality that surrounds him.
A legend who founded an empire …:
Lands located north of Lake Titicaca, men lived like wild beasts. They had no religion, no justice, and no villages. These people did not know the land and lived naked. They took refuge in caves and fed on plants, wild berries and raw meat.
Inti the Sun God, decided he had to civilize these people. He asked his son Ayar Manco and his daughter Mama Ocllo down to earth to build a great empire. They teach men the rules of civilized life and teach them to worship their creator god, the Sun.
But first, Ayar Manco and Mama Ocllo should establish a capital. Inti entrusted them with a golden wand and say this:
– Since the great lake, where you arrive, walk north. Each time you stop to eat or sleep, plant this golden wand into the ground. Where it will sink without any effort, you will build Cuzco and head for the Empire of the Sun.
The next morning, Ayar Manco and Mama Ocllo appeared between the waters of Lake Titicaca.
One morning, arrived in a beautiful valley surrounded by majestic mountains, the golden wand sank slowly into the ground. Here he had built Cuzco, the “navel” of the world, the capital of the Empire of the Sun.
Ayar Manco spoke to the men who surrounded them and began to teach them to farm, hunt, build houses, etc. …
Mama Ocllo addressed to women and taught them to weave the wool of llamas to make clothes. She also taught them to cook and look after the house …
Thus, Ayar Manco, became Manco Capac, with his sister Mama Ocllo, sat on the throne of the new Empire of the Sun. From this day all Inca emperors, descendants of Manco Capac, govern their empire with their sister became married.
Simón Iturri Patiño (1862-1947)
Simón Patiño Iturri was a Bolivian industrialist who was among the richest men in the world at the time of his death. Having established the fortune of owning a majority of the tin industry in Bolivia, Patiño was nicknamed “the Rockefeller Andean. During World War II, it was thought that Patiño was one of the five richest men in the world.
From him, we know he was born in 1862 – or 1860 – in a very poor family in the province of Cochabamba, Spanish and Indian blood running through his veins and he began working very young, as a driver mules in the Bolivian mountains.
There, in 1894, his destiny changed. This year, he accepted from a prospector in payment of a debt of $ 250, the title of a disused tin mine. The mine is full of ore tin! An ore that Patiño and his wife, tells the story – or legend – begins to exploit themselves, working 18 hours a day.
So begins the amazing story of Simon Patiño, and with it, that of the Bolivian tin mining on a scale hitherto unknown.
In the ten years that followed, Patiño puts his hand on several large deposits in Bolivia, ensuring control of more than half its supply.
His extraordinary rise accelerated after the First World War. In the 1920s, Simon Patiño bought mines in Malaysia and Nigeria before going in the refining of ore. His master stroke, he succeeded in Britain by taking control of the largest tin smelter in the world, Harvey Williams and Co., based in Liverpool. In the late 1920s, the “empire Patiño” controls more than 10% of world production of tin, spread over almost all continents and employs over 20,000 workers. The profits are considerable. Extracted at a price of $ 350 on average in the mid-1920s, a ton of tin from its mines is sold on international markets $ 1,400!
His fortune, estimated at 500 million, exceeds the budget of the Bolivian State!
Julio C. Tello (1880-1947)
He is another great pioneer of Peruvian archaeological studies with Max Uhle. Peruvian doctor and anthropologist, director until 1947 of the National Museum of Anthropology and Archaeology in Lima, he has discovered Chavin, Paracas, Huari, Cerro Sechin, and in many other parts of the Andes and coast.
Tello, who was above all the great discoverer of the civilizations of Chavin and Paracas, estimated that the core of the high Peruvian cultures could be sought only in the Amazon region where the man, first hunter and collector had gradually emerged to conquer the Andean valleys in search of better living conditions.
His explanation of the development of civilizations of the Peruvian Formative Period is determined by its diffusion theory from East to West: the cultures of the eastern Andes are older and are followed by the cultures of western Andes, then those on the coast, from previous, all eventually subsumed into the Inca Empire.
His chronology of Andean civilizations, published in 1942, has influenced many researchers thereafter.
Martin Chambi (1891-1973)
Peruvian by birth, Martin Chambi, the little miner became great photographer, is the first Indian photographer to be immortalized through the lens, the people it belongs to and identifies with pride.
His work not only important for its artistic value but also by the anthropological evidence it provides, reveals the magical dimension that inhabits this ancient culture, LBS and multicolored.
It is now recognized as the most prestigious Indo-American photographers of the twentieth century and has been the subject of a posthumous exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York in 1979.
Contains about 30,000 images of exceptional quality, the work of Chambi has exposed the social complexity of the Andean world.
Martin Chambi is now recognized as the greatest native photographer.
Martin Chambi explores the variations of light, the staging portraits, and the particular way he has treated his models, both humble and very attentive to their personality, making his studio extremely popular with all strata of society. Committed photographer, reporter, he has played an important role in raising awareness of cultural identity, the natives wearing a new look, respectful and poetic about indigenous culture.
Guillermo Lora (1921-2009)
Guillermo Lora was one of those figures whose name embodies rightly or wrongly, a stream, an organization or a political culture.
In this generation, close to the death of Guillermo Lora, has produced, April 27, 2009, that of Hugo Gonzalez Moscoso (1922-2009) who was a little, in terms of “international Trotskyist”, his enemy brother having long been his friend.
But Guillermo Lora is unique because it was too, and in his case this is inseparable from its “status” of great figure of Trotskyism, a kind of incarnation of the conscience of the Bolivian proletariat, particularly the mining proletariat Andean Altiplano for several decades. At the point it became about his age a bit of a national icon, a component of complex Bolivian national sentiment, and that its loss was felt in Bolivia as a national grief even among those who despised and feared him, the press which seems you hardly feared but still shudder at the thought of what he represented, who hailed the departure of his death “the last Bolshevik.”